1. Urban security
The second base of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is about safety and security. This need is one of the most essential needs in a human’s life. Sense of security is the prerequisite for the success of a design or an urban space. Because the feeling of insecurity and fear of being the victim can exclude some spaces from the flow of life and disperse people off from them. On the other hand, social life with interactions and a sense of belonging can make people feel secured and also reduce the crime rate.
Evaluating the security of a place should implement by collecting and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data. The suitable solutions should be determined according to the type of the spaces’ problems and be implemented with the participation of Authorities, Beneficiaries, and society.
2. Urban safety
The safety of space is an essential factor to determine the level and the ways that different social groups are using a space. Most urban spaces can be converted to safer and healthier places, just by changing the design or function of the place. Prioritization to pedestrian movements on the street through design and planning is one the most effective ways to increase the safety of users of the space.
3. The physical and mental health of residents
Paying attention to residents’ physical and mental health is one the most important duties that can be considered as the duty of a Paragon City. Cities and urban spaces should be designed and planned in a way that not only not putting its citizens’ health in danger, but also makes it possible for them to increase their physical strength in a healthy space. Such a situation should be applied to all the groups in society and not just including the people without physical and mental problems. It should consider the groups like the people with disabilities (mental and physical) and elderly too and have a special plan and design for them.
4. Supporting culture and creativity
Nowadays culture and creativity are known as essential elements for urban developments. Creativity is a way to respond to the probable problems which may occur as a result of globalization and global cities’ competition that is based on specified standards and criteria. We can mention weakening the local cultures and identity of districts and cities as such problems. Creativity can operate as a way to confront these problems, can be used as a tool for strengthen local economy structures, attaining social organizations, and increasing inclusion in civil society. Because of the strong relationship between culture and quality of life, if the development is seen as a promoter of the quality of life of the citizens, the cultural dimension won’t be unseen in development.
5. Supporting innovation
One of The best ways to improve a city is to mobilize its inhabitants. Innovations in technology, services, and governance are the tools that can be used to increase the citizens’ quality of life. All innovations must be centered on the inhabitants, holding on to the principles of universal design and be usable by folks of all ages as well as abilities.
6. Supporting gender equality
Considering inclusiveness for all genders in spaces is an important and effective factor in economical flourishing and social interactions. Some characteristics may cause the space to become a space for a single-sex and neglect other genders. This can lead to reduce the gender diversity in a space and make that space uncomfortable and insecure for the neglected gender groups. This issue can have economic Consequences, in addition to social problems. In a paragon city, spaces have been designed and operate in a manner that gives everybody from every gender group equal opportunities to experience life.
7. Supporting sustainable development’s elements
Sustainable development is a concept that entered the urban development literature. This concept generally means balancing the needs of society and its resources, in a manner that not only responds to current society’s needs but also meets the needs of future society. Sustainability is known and valued in four dimensions, including social, economic, environmental, and cultural. In a Paragon City, urban design and planning should be implemented in a way that all the sustainability elements stay on board.
a) Social sustainability
From the early twenty-first century, the Social dimension became one of the essential elements of sustainable development. Social sustainability is a concept that is majorly known as a qualitative dimension. There are a lot of definitions and criteria for explaining this concept. But we can define it as local communities’ ability to overcome challenges and internal issues, and showing optimal reactions against external changes.
b) Economical sustainability
Economy act as an important factor in both quality of life of human beings and urban developments. Sustainable economic can majorly preserve the sustainability of the quality of life of a place’s residents. So many factors can effect on economical sustainability of a region. But in general, economical sustainability is known as a situation in which in addition to economic prosperity and logical relation between costs and income, labor force and resources don’t be wasted or overused.
c) Environmental sustainability
Managing natural resources is a basic factor for attaining environmental sustainability. The interaction between cities and natural resources is widely diverse and complicated. About 75 percent of all-natural resources worldwide are consumed by cities, and the quality of land, air, and water are majorly impaired by harmful emissions, sealing, and wasted water. Embracing the ecology of a context as a key design indicator is not only an aspect of sustainable design but also affects the wellbeing of a city and people in general. Using natural resources should be planned in a manner that in addition to meeting the needs of current residents, save the resources for future generations.
d) Cultural sustainability
The cultural dimension is not a separate section, but a context for all the other sustainability elements that were reviewed. As John Hawkes believes, culture is not a thing that can be injected after a society has been shaped on its basic needs, but it is itself a central need and shaping the context of a society. Culture can be introduced as a manner of living of a society that is based on its physical and moral achievements.
8. Microeconomics’ efficiency
If an urban design is open to interaction, it can create a chance for local stores to offer their services to the community. Retail prosperity in an urban space, while having positive effects on the local economy, acts as a mirror to reflect social interaction rate and people’s intention for presence in that space.
9. Conservation and Rehabilitation of the Urban Heritage
When speaking of “urban heritage”, what comes to the most urban planners and managers’ minds are usually “monuments”, i.e. churches, temples, all sorts of religious buildings, palaces, castles, fortresses, historic city walls and gates, and other types of institutional buildings (e.g. of education, science, administration, or other social purposes). This approach often excludes historic residential areas and historic city centers which equally represent the urban heritage. Also, there may even be non-tangible elements of urban heritage, such as customs and beliefs, which play an important role in the articulation of space and the built environment and the ways it’s been used. Due to the existence of international cultural organizations, such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) and the International Commission on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and a good number of local conservation groups, monuments have at least a “lobby” and are in a somewhat more favorable situation than historic residential areas. The mentioned organizations and interest groups are seemed to yield some success in their efforts to achieve greater interests for the course of preservation and conservation of old monuments of historic value. However, seldom is a cross-reference made between urban heritage and sustainability. The recent concern for sustainability and the “brown agenda” of urban environmental development has completely excluded urban heritage from the sustainability discussion. The built environment and built expressions of culture, military, economic and religious powers, and forces, as parts of the national heritage, deserve to be included in this perspective, and urban heritage should attain the status of a preservable asset that can benefit the present and the future of the cities. These assets are not just limited to cultural perspectives, but also can become an economic asset with a good potential for economic exploitation, for instance through reinforcing heritage-based tourism, we can lead to economic prosperity.
10. Social Education
Raising social awareness about society’s concerns and challenges can take place by educating them in various fields. This process will train more responsible, useful, and socially wiser citizens.
11. Quality of ways and access rate
Ways and paths formed a great number of city’s parts and a lot of citizen’s lifetime passes in urban paths. As urban spaces, streets should have adequate quality and Permeability for people to spend time in.
12. Urban Adaptability
As the world rapidly changes, a city must be designed to face unseen shifts with preparedness. If the cities have been designed to be adaptive when required, many of the problems that may occur by changes in different dimensions can be solved effortlessly.
13. Urban Mobility
Movement and access systems in cities, shaped to respond to two general goals, movement, and access. This system can be compared to the body’s circulatory system. The main roads and fast vehicles with high capacity, act as main veins and play a movement role. Sub-roads and the vehicles which suitable for local paths, act as capillaries and do the access parts. Usually, in movement, speed, and access, texture permeability is the priority.
So many factors effect on movement and access system in the cities. Some of these factors shape this system, i.e. the regulating policies and rules, land use and urban design, users’ behavior, and preferences. Other factors are the implementing ways of movement in the city, i.e. using personal vehicles, walking and biking, using public transportation, and novel moving systems. In case that these factors work together properly and give users wide and suitable choices, the moving system would have the considered performance.
14. Justice in providing opportunities
Urban services should be distributed in the city in a manner that is not just able to be used by specific groups or social classes. Every citizen should have the opportunity of using urban spaces, services, and facilities. They should be able to bloom their talents by using these facilities.
Paragon City can be introduced in different scales, including neighborhood units, part of the city, city, and metropolitan areas. These scales fit in the categories which we will explain below. in the scales of city and metropolitan areas, you can define more than one category, just in case, the sample covers the values of that category.
Note: these categories can be applied to all geographical districts in cities and terms of scale, can be defined in different scales including neighborhood units, part of the city, city, and metropolitan areas.
Eco-museums are the district that has conservative values, natural and cultural characteristics and attractions, harmonic with nature architecture and most important of all, they are live sites. This means the local communities with special culture and customs live in these places. These areas usually don’t have any specific geographical boundaries. They act as a way to introduce and understand the moral heritage and protect the local communities’ culture.
2. Historical-Museum cities
Unlike the traditional view to the museums, which knew the museums as buildings to preserve and exhibit the valuable historic, cultural, artistic, etc phenomena, the modern approach to museums has been changed and take a meaning more than just a single building. A city or a district with valuable cultural and historic characteristics can be known and act as a museum.
Museum-city is a city that its buildings and spaces preserved their historic and cultural situation and act as a live history. Museum-quarters are specific geographical districts in the city that include museums, historic and cultural buildings, and the spaces that cover them. In this quarter, besides visiting the cultural heritage, people can enjoy the urban space and experience social life.
3. Urban-public art
Public art is different from the kind of art that is created for museum exhibitions or the artworks that are collected by people. In general, public art includes statues, mosaics, fountains, handicrafts, multimedia videos, installations, environmental artworks, decorative or functional elements designed by an artist, and wall paintings. If an artwork doesn’t be unique or original, it doesn’t count as public art. By this definition, cities or districts that benefit from public arts in their urban spaces in a way that can be known as a museum of such art can be placed in this category.
4. Educational & university town
Some cities were shaped in a way that universities and educational facilities became the most effective elements in their economy, culture, society, and other urban dimensions. The existence of several universities or a single powerful and effective university in a city or district can affect that district strongly.
A green city is a city in which environmental sustainability is a determinant factor. Such a city respects nature and the environment and makes life pleasant for residents. In a green city, harmony can be seen between the environment and the city. Using clean energies, clean transportation and public transportation, pedestrian-oriented movements, biking, reducing waste production and using recycle policy, high quality of climate, building’s compatibility and combination with the environment and green spaces are some of the criteria for a green city.
6. Smart cities
Smart cities are the cities in which the city synchronized itself with the technological progress’ speed and ability to respond to the technological needs of 21-century humans. Real-time citizen’s accessibility to information is one of the most important factors in such cities.
To name a city innovative, three main factors are required, including the residence of the creative class, the existence of a middle connector layer, and the presence of innovative companies. Innovation is the next stage of creativity and knowledge and means a level of blooming and expansion of an idea. The existence of projects spaces and places for generating and publishing knowledge in innovative cities or districts is an essential issue. Science and technology parks are placed in this category.
Multiculturalism is a factor that can preserve cultural and intellectual diversity in a community and make a connection between different cultures. Cities and districts that can use their cultural potential to increase links between their community members and reduce the social gaps, can achieve more sustainable communities and more successful urban spaces.
9. Inclusive & accessible
The cities which give all of their community members the opportunity of presenting and being active have the opportunity of using the material and spiritual potentials of these groups and having lively residents and spaces.
The cities in which the standards of presence and activity of elders have been considered.
The cities in which children are known as a part of the community and safe and secure places for their presence and activity have been considered.
The cities which considered the standards for the presence and activity of people with mental or physical disabilities and disabled people can easily use and live the urban spaces like other members of the community.
10. Recreational & touristic
This category includes cities and districts which have touristic characteristics and had been successful in a tourist attraction or have the potential of attracting tourists. Districts with historic heritage and elements, special natural characteristics, and recreational areas are placed in this category.
11. Spiritual cities
In cities with spiritual characteristics, spiritual and heartsome elements can be seen and felt all over the city and make a relaxing atmosphere for residents’ and visitors’ souls and minds. These elements can include elements related to religious or peaceful beliefs or special philosophies.
If your ideal city doesn’t fit in the categories mentioned above and has special characteristics that attracted your attention and you found it necessary to propose it worldwide, please share its description and documents with us.